Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1809 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Case study Did you like this example? Purposes of different types of organisation The variety of legal types of organisations, including with corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not for profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and universities. The organization of a hybrid is a body that alternates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling the wants of public duties and developing commercial market activities. Organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, economics, political sciences, psychology, management and organizational communication. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Strategic Application of Apple Inc." essay for you Create order The organization of broader analysis is commonly referred to as organisational structure, organisational studies, organisational behaviour, or organisational analysis. From a purpose related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being reorganized, and the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions. From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like business or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a context. Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity; specific institutions serve a function, to the individual organs of a coherent body. In the social and political sciences in general, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âan organisationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã may be more loosely understood as the planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product. Th ey distinguish the term organisation into planned formal and unplanned informal organisations. Sociology demonstrates organisations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organisation is a permanent arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated section of labour. Economic approaches to organizations also take the division of labour as a starting point. The division of labour allows for economic of specialization. Increasing specialization necessitates coordination. From an economic point of view, markets and organizations are alternative coordination mechanisms for execution of transactions. Introduction Apple Inc.is a global computer manufacturing company that is going through changes in its organizational culture and its organizational structure due to several events of the past few years. This is of course that grew faster in little amount of time, that their management could not able to keep the operations and finances under control. Apple Inc, has been forced to revaluate and design again its organizational culture and organizational structure to avoid with bankruptcy. The organizational of Apple is one of change; with the drive to succeed as the major objectives. The organizational structure of the company has also transformed to be more rival in a critical juncture in the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s history. Apple is going through rebuilding to regain control of its alternation and finances in order to stay competitive with global market. Organizational Culture The culture of Apple was based on an ideal that self-stimulated individuals will work harder if they do not have a less managing every action. The unique structure of Apple had allowed it to grow and react more quickly to changes than its competitors .In order to the quick responsiveness make simple; it is much easier to achieve a project beg an if there are only a less amount of people to get approval from. Apple initially grew fast, because the decision level reached less point. Corporate headquarters made policy and oversaw all activities, but the local staff made the day-to-day decisions on the ground in countries all over the world. This type of top-down philosophy allowed for quick responsiveness and resolutions to situations without involving the corporate headquarters, thus for avoiding corporate red tape. Organizational Structure The organizational structure of Apple was almost non-existent and focused on planning decision making in the hands of citizen in the field. Apple was doing incredibly well and had received the attention of many people because the company done well and very responsive to change, However, things took a downward turn and Apple research themselves in a financial nightmare. Apple suffered problems in regional areas, specifically in the accountability of using and in fiscal decision-mak ing. The same Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âtop-downÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ideology that supported Apple grow also opened the door for some serious financial losses. With employees at different levels planning decisions, it became hard for the corporate office to keep track of spending and purchasing. Stakeholders and their objectives People are included in running a business. Some have direct interest while on the other hand has indirect interest in the section of running of the business. This part of groups are known as stakeholders. Objectives of State Holders in conflict Many business objectives complement each other and are acceptable to a broad range of stakeholders. For example ,an objective for a business set up of earning survival would be assistant by nearly all the stake holders. No-oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s interest for a business to fail. However, if a business becomes better demonstrated and larger, then potential conflicts begin to high. Business expansion Vs Higher short-term profit The aims of increasing the size and scale of a business might be helped by managers, employees, suppliers and the local community largely for the extra jobs and sales that expansion would bring. However, an expansion is often related with increased costs in the short-term (e-g extra marketing spending, new locations opened, more production capacity added).This method result in lower overall profits in the short-term , which may cause conflict with the business shareholders or owners. In the long-term, however, most business owners would be better to support an expansion If it increases the overall value of the business. Job losses Vs Keeping Jobs This has been a big issue for many businesses during the economic downturn in 2008-2010. Because of reducing costs and conserve cash, business managers have often made redundancies amongst the workforce or introduced other measures like short-time working to reduce wage costs. This could lead by business owners and manag ers. However, it makes a potential conflict with stakeholders such as employees (who are directly affected), the local community (affected by local job losses) and suppliers who suffer from a reduction in business). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âShort-termÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã thinking by managers may discourage important long-term investment in the business. New developments in the business such as a major product launch or new factory may require extra finance to be raised, which decreases the control of existing investors. Investing in new machinery to achieve better efficiency may get in job losses. Extending products into mass markets may result in lower quality standards. Stakeholders areÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. Owners: Invest capital in the business and get profits from the business. Workers: Employees of the business who help to make a business successful. Managers: Managing a business. Also they can lead and control the workers to achieve organisational goals. Consumers: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âWithout customers without businessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . They buy the goods and services of the business. Government: Charging a tax from the business and also monitors the working of business in the country. The Community: People who are directly or indirectly affected by the actions of the business. Stakeholders of Apple AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Owners: They are internal stake holders and also they can say about Apple news. They put the most money into the business. AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Suppliers: Supporting to make any products with good quality. AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Employees: They are able to get their products that they purchase from the Apple store with a discount, they will buy their products and also treating their customers very good. Apple inc customers: Apple incs customers are very important to Apple in order to help thems to make a profit, Apple customers are shared in other companies such as T-Mobile and O2.They are external state holders. But they donÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t have a chance to say in what happens in the business and what specifications their products have. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17835234 The link above is one way of how AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s customers influence the aims of Apple, this is as they keep buying AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s products which has helped Apple to make more profit and now they can us their profit to create new products. AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s strategic position In this report, I have made a detailed market analysis of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âMobile phone industryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and Apple strategic of position in the selected market while considering its company background. By using different techniques such as S.W.O.T analysis and PorterÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s analysis, Cultural change, PESTEL analysis (Power and Politics) in order to analyse the strategic position of the company in relation to the market. APPLEÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢S STRATEGY Apple is a incorporated company that industrializes and supplies the whole range of hardware, software as well as its own innovative operating systems. APPLE Inc, preferred the following strategy to substain the profit level with a guarantee not to lose their profit growth and margins by investing somewhere else. Allow for a two-way communication between employees, board of directors, CEO and management. By randomly visiting stores and help chains involving Foxconn, this will motivate employees to work diligently while maintaining AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s higher prices and standards. Provide financial aid for struggling employees. Increases communication with stakeholders. Include a forum for all employees to be given relevant information pertaining to Apple Inc. and the direction it is going in. APPLEÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢S MISSION AND VISION Introduce the best personal computing experience to students, educationalist, inventive experience to students, educationalist, inventive proficient and clients in the world through AppleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s inventive hardware, software and internet offerings. Tries to launch with unbeatable computers, e. g OS X operating system and i-Life and professional applications. Also leading the digital media revolution with its iPod portable music, video players, iTunes online store, and it also introduced the new online phone in the coming year along with its ground Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"breaking phone. Apple is committed to ensure the highest standards of social responsibility in everything. Their company provide safe working conditions, treat employees fairly, and use environmentally responsible manufacturing processes wherever Apple products are made. STRENGTHS Respected brand on an international scale. Produces Variety of technological equipment to the masses. Exceptional interface Provides higher than average wages to staff members in America and Canada. Customer relations- responsive to customer feedback. Strong financial performance. Innovation of skills and creativity. Provide safe and comfortable working environment for employees. WEAKNESS Under fire for labour issues at Foxconn Workers being paid less amount of wages and long working hours, causing dissatisfied employees to commit suicide. OPPORTUNITIES Strategic partnerships Increase and implement new employee programs. Collaborations with rivals. International growth and expansions. Pressure of pricing as competitors create new products at the fraction of the cost. THREATS Potential boycott of the brand if customers find out about the working conditions. Loss of brand reputation and share prices KEY STAKEHOLDERS Employees Shareholders Board of directors, CEO Suppliers, Foxconn Family of employees Wages of employees can dramatically affect family members, especially workers that have commit suicide. .
Friday, May 8, 2020
In the U.S and most developed countries, women have gone far in fighting for their equal rights. The movement continues today and as more and more women are call upon to be aware of their roles in the society. However, the force of masculine force is still dominated and make it hard for women. Some complain and doubt that feminists have cross the line which thrown the society to another extreme, putting male into discrimination, demanding a retrivition of their male power. Sheryl Sandberg, American technology executive, points out that patriarchic values still ruin the world by saying that of the 195 independent countries in the world, only 17 are led by women. Woman hold just 20 percent of seats in parliaments globally (2). the rights that we fight for now take for granted(2). In addition, Sandberg reminds that around the globe, there are still countries that deny women basic civil rights(2). The United States has fought for equal rights for centuries and many dedicated their lives to get the respect for women and other minority groups. Sandberg also points out that In the United States, where people pride ourselves on liberty and justice for all, the gender division of leadership roles is not much better(2). If women in developed county which process a long history of feminist movement still cannot Understanding that the issue remains severe and across multiple countries, it is time to tease out the essence of feminist movements and examine what and how a femaleShow MoreRelatedWomen s Rights For Equal Rights1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAt this time period racism and discrimination was going on, women were fighting for equal rights. However African American women had to fight double because of racism. Sojourner Truth was the most famous of the 19th Century black women orators, she was born into slavery, she fought for equal rights for men and women. Her speech Ã¢â¬Å"ArÃ¢â¬â¢nt I a WomanÃ¢â¬ was written by others, after 25 years she had spoken.The people that wrote her speech had problems agreeing with what and how she said things on her speechRead MoreWomen s Rights For Equal Treatment And Equal Rights1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBlanca Romero November 1st, 2015 Fall 2015 Womenism in Our Everyday Life Women have always been treated as second class citizens in the United States, they have battled for equal treatment and equal rights. Although women have more rights than they used to, there is still much progress to be made. There is a clear discrimination against women to this day; thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a disadvantage when it comes to the workplace, they get paid less than men and are less likely to have authority positionsRead MoreWomen s Struggle For Equal Rights860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespre-Revolutionary France and America, Women had no political rights and were forced to rely on men. 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Women put themselves in positions of power; they presented themselves with powerRead MoreWomen s Rights, Power, And Equal Ability Essay1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmother has been viewed as the nurturer: who gives birth to children, stays home, feeds and raises them. Step by step women wanted more rights, power, and equal ability. In the 20 century women were given these rights and could finally seek jobs outside of the home. A lot of questions appeared when women needed to leave their children with someone to care while mother working. Mother s absence from home for whole day leads to new values which not include in the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s primary role in building ethicalRead MoreBarbie s Influence On Women s Equal Rights And Opportunities1760 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBarbie, has contributed an impeccable standard for young girls--from the unhealthy body images for girls to the l ow self-assurance Barbie has brought upon them. To counteract the previous statement, with the help of BarbieÃ¢â¬â¢s many job titles, women s equal rights and opportunities have flourished. The creator of Barbie, Ruth Handler, created her so that, Ã¢â¬Å"through the doll, the little girl could be anything she wanted to be. Barbie always represented the fact that a woman has choices,Ã¢â¬ (Mattel 2016)Read MoreWomen s Suffrage : The Long Resisted Struggle Of Equal Right Voting1905 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Suffrage: The long resisted struggle of equal right voting Ã¢â¬Å"Remember the ladiesÃ¢â¬ , wrote boldly by the soon to be First Lady Abigail Adams to her husband John Adams in March 1776. Abigail AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢s words were one of the first noted mentions in the United States foreshadowing the beginning of a long suppressed battle towards womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage. The fight for women suffrage was a movement in which women, and some men included, pleaded for equal rights regarding voting and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s voice within the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Gather together your people and go, Biggrin,Ã¢â¬ the wizard told the enormous frost giant that stood before him in Cryshal-TirithÃ¢â¬â¢s throne room. Ã¢â¬Å"Remember that you represent the army of Akar Kessell. You are the first group to go into the area, and secrecy is the key to our victory! Do not fail me! I shall be watching over your every move. We will write a custom essay sample on The Crystal Shard 13. As the Wielder Bids or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll not fail ye, master,Ã¢â¬ the giant responded. Ã¢â¬Å"The lairÃ¢â¬â¢ll be set and readied for your coming!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I have faith in you,Ã¢â¬ Kessell assured the huge commander. Ã¢â¬Å"Now be off.Ã¢â¬ The frost giant lifted the blanketed mirror that Kessell had given it, gave one final bow to its master, and walked out of the room. Ã¢â¬Å"You should not have sent them,Ã¢â¬ hissed Errtu, who had been standing invisibly beside the throne during the conversation. Ã¢â¬Å"The verbeeg and their frost giant leader will be easy to mark in a community of humans and dwarves.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Biggrin is a wise leader,Ã¢â¬ Kessell shot back, angered at the demonÃ¢â¬â¢s impertinence. Ã¢â¬Å"The giant is cunning enough to keep troops out of sight!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yet the humans would have been better suited for this mission, as Crenshinibon has shown you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am the leader!Ã¢â¬ screamed Kessell. He pulled the crystal shard out from under his robes and waved it menacingly at Errtu, leaning forward in an attempt to emphasize the threat. Ã¢â¬Å"Crenshinibon advises, but I decide! Do not forget your place, mighty demon. I am the wielder of the shard, and I shall not tolerate your questioning my every move.Ã¢â¬ ErrtuÃ¢â¬â¢s blood-red eyes narrowed dangerously, and Kessell straightened back in his throne, suddenly reconsidering the wisdom of threatening the demon. But Errtu calmed quickly, accepting the minor inconveniences of KessellÃ¢â¬â¢s foolish outbursts for the long term gains it stood to make. Ã¢â¬Å"Crenshinibon has existed since the dawn of the world,Ã¢â¬ the demon rasped, making one final point. Ã¢â¬Å"It has orchestrated a thousand campaigns much grander than the one you are about to undertake. Perhaps you would be wise to give more credence to its advice.Ã¢â¬ Kessell twitched nervously. The shard had indeed counseled him to use the humans he would soon command in the first excursion into the region. He had been able to create a dozen excuses to validate his choice of sending the giants, but in truth, he had sent BiggrinÃ¢â¬â¢s people more to illustrate his undeniable command to himself, to the shard, and to the impertinent demon, than for any possible military gains. Ã¢â¬Å"I shall follow CrenshinibonÃ¢â¬â¢s advice when I deem it appropriate,Ã¢â¬ he told Errtu. He pulled a second crystal, an exact duplicate of Crenshinibon and the crystal he had used to raise this tower, out from one of the many pockets of his robe. Ã¢â¬Å"Take this to the appropriate spot and perform the ceremony of raising,Ã¢â¬ he instructed. Ã¢â¬Å"I shall join you through a mirror door when all is ready.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You wish to raise a second Cryshal-Tirith while the first still stands?Ã¢â¬ Errtu balked. Ã¢â¬Å"The drain on the relic shall be enormous!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Silence!Ã¢â¬ Kessell ordered, trembling visibly. Ã¢â¬Å"Go and perform the ceremony! Let the shard remain my concern!Ã¢â¬ Errtu took the replica of the relic and bowed low. Without a further word, the demon stalked out of the room. It understood that Kessell was foolishly demonstrating his control over the shard at the expense of proper restraint and wise military tactics. The wizard did not have the capacity or the experience to orchestrate this campaign, yet the shard continued to back him. Errtu had made a secret offer to it to dispose of Kessell and take over as wielder. But Crenshinibon had refused the demon. It preferred the demonstrations that Kessell demanded of it to appease his own insecurities over the constant struggle of control it would face against the powerful demon. * * * Though he walked among giants and trolls, the proud barbarian kingÃ¢â¬â¢s stature was not diminished. He strode defiantly through the iron door of the black tower and pushed through the wretched troll guards with a threatening growl. He hated this place of sorcery and had decided to ignore the calling when the singular spinet of the tower appeared on the horizon like an icy finger risen from the flat ground. Yet in the end he could not resist the summons of the master of Cryshal-Tirith. Heafstaag hated the wizard. By all measures of a tribesman Akar Kessell was weak, using tricks and demonic callings to do the work of muscle. And Heafstaag hated him even more because he could not refute the power that the wizard commanded. The barbarian king threw aside the dangling, beaded strands that sectioned off Akar KessellÃ¢â¬â¢s private audience hall on the towerÃ¢â¬â¢s second level. The wizard reclined on a huge, satin pillow in the middle of the room, his long, painted fingernails tapping impatiently on the floor. Several nude slave girls, their minds bent and broken under the shardÃ¢â¬â¢s domination, waited on every whim of the shardÃ¢â¬â¢s wielder. It angered Heafstaag to see women enslaved to such a puny, pitiful shell of a man. He considered, and not for the first time, a sudden charge, burying his great axe deep into the wizardÃ¢â¬â¢s skull. But the room was filled with strategically located screens and pillars, and the barbarian knew, even if he refused to believe that the wizardÃ¢â¬â¢s will could deny his rage, that KessellÃ¢â¬â¢s pet demon wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be far from its master. Ã¢â¬Å"So good that you could join me, noble Heafstaag,Ã¢â¬ said Kessell in a calm, disarming way. Errtu and Crenshinibon were close at hand. He felt quite secure, even in the presence of the rugged barbarian king. He fondled one of the slaves absently, showing off his absolute rule. Ã¢â¬Å"Really, you should have come sooner. Already many of my forces are assembled; the first group of scouts has already departed.Ã¢â¬ He leaned forward toward the barbarian to emphasize his point. Ã¢â¬Å"If I can find no room for your people in my plans,Ã¢â¬ he said with an evil snicker, Ã¢â¬Å"then I shall have no need for your people at all.Ã¢â¬ Heafstaag didnÃ¢â¬â¢t flinch or change his expression in the least. Ã¢â¬Å"Come now, mighty king,Ã¢â¬ the wizard crooned, Ã¢â¬Å"sit and share in the riches of my table.Ã¢â¬ Heafstaag clung to his pride and remained unmoving. Ã¢â¬Å"Very well!Ã¢â¬ snapped Kessell. He clenched his fist and uttered a command word. Ã¢â¬Å"To whom do you owe your fealty?Ã¢â¬ he demanded. HeafstaagÃ¢â¬â¢s body went rigid. Ã¢â¬Å"To Akar Kessell!Ã¢â¬ he responded, to his own repulsion. Ã¢â¬Å"And tell me again who it is that commands the tribes of the tundra.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They follow me,Ã¢â¬ Heafstaag replied, Ã¢â¬Å"and I follow Akar Kessell. Akar Kessell commands the tribes of the tundra!Ã¢â¬ The wizard released his fist, and the barbarian king slumped back. Ã¢â¬Å"I take little joy in doing that to you,Ã¢â¬ said Kessell, rubbing a burr in one of his painted nails. Ã¢â¬Å"Do not make me do it again.Ã¢â¬ He pulled a scroll out from behind the satin pillow and tossed it to the floor. Ã¢â¬Å"Sit before me,Ã¢â¬ he instructed Heafstaag. Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me again of your defeat.Ã¢â¬ Heafstaag took his place on the floor in front of his master and unrolled the parchment. It was a map of Ten-Towns. How to cite The Crystal Shard 13. As the Wielder Bids, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
The making of automobiles started in the year 1770. In 1770 a man named Nicholas Joseph Cungnot from France built a large steam-driven vehicle. The vehicle didn't last long because the vehicle could only be driven for 12 to 15 minutes before running out of steam and the vehicle was too heavy and had poor balance and made it difficult to steer. Nothing more had been done until in the 1784. In 1784 James Watt made a patent on a steam carriage, but nothing became of it. Then in 1785 John Fitch invented a steam-propelled boat in New Jersey. And then in 1786 he organized a company to build the steam engines and then even built a model of a road vehicle with an engine but committed suicide before anything came of it. In 1787 Oliver Evans put a patent on a steam engine in Maryland, for the use in land transportation's. In 1791 Nathan Read got a federal patent for a high pressure boiler and improved cylinder. And began to make plans to apply this to a land carriage. In 1792 Oliver petitioned the American government for a patent on a reciprocating engine plus a rotating engine and boiler-enclosed furnace, but it was unsuccessful. In 1797 Richard Trevithick began to work on a high-pressured steam engine in England. And James Watt opposes his work, he felt that it is publicly hazardous. And then in 1801 Cirnishman Richard Trevithick built a steam carriage. This carriage held several people and went 5 to 6 mile per hour uphill and 8 to 9 miles per hour on flat land. But cought fire and was destroyed. In 1803 Richard built an improved steam carriage, which was shipped to London. It was drove around London and reached to speed of 8 to 9 miles per hour. But then funding for it ran out and the engine was sold. And then in 1804 Oliver Evans was granted and American patent for his steam engine to power boats and land carriages. He put in a newspaper and began to publicly sell the engines. And then in 1805 Evans constructed a 20 -ton steam dredge for the City of Philadelphia, called the "Orukter Amphiboles" or the Amphilibios Digger. It was the the first vehicle to move under its own power across the streets of Philadelphia. In 1807 Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland put a patent on a trolley powered by a primitive gas engine. In 1815 Colonel John H. Stevens received a charter from the state of New Jersey to build the first American railway. Later in 1825 Thomas Blanchard completed one of the first few operable steam carriages of the United States in Massachusetts. It was able to drive forward and in reverse, steer and climb up hills. In 1826 Samuel Brown put a patent on a"gas-and-vacuum" engine, which would climbed Shooter's Hill in London. And John Stevens completed a circular track in Hoboken. And then in 1829 Goldsworthy Gurney's steam carriage traveled from London to Bath. This was the first long travel for a self-propelled road vehicle. 1832, officals in Fredericksburg, Virginia and Troy, New York, began to build improved road ways for the steam carriages to drive on. 1835, a steam wagon is built in Vermont, and demonstrated by an unknown inventor. And then in 1837, Thomas Davenport patented an electric motor. Later in 1844 Stuart Perry, from New York, constructed an internal combustion engine, using turpentine as fuel. It was patented in 1844 and 1846, and had a two-cycle method of operation. In 1847 Moses G. Farmer of Massachusetts built a locomotive powered by forty-eight Grove electrical cells of one-pint capacity each. That then became the first electrical powered land carriage. In 1851 the American Steam Carriage Company is established in New York City. However, the business failed a few years later. And then in 1853, Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci patented the first practicable gas engine in Italy. No workable designs became of their effort though. And Richard Dudgeon began to work on an operable steam carriage, and built another in 1866. In 1857 Dr. Alfred Drake exhibits an "explosive gas engine" at the Crystal Palace in New York. The engine was ignited by internally-placed hot tubes. And in 1859 Belgian J. J. Etienne Lenoir built an engine dilated but the combustion of gas and used a jump-spark method. A company in Paris is formed to develop the engine. 1866, Nikolaus August Otto patented a "free-piston" engine in Germany. Joseph Ravel Built the first steam car to
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Independent Study Essays Independent Study Essay Independent Study Essay Film stars are complex signs whose significance is created partly by themselves acting out their personas, by taking on particular fictional roles, but also by their studios and publicists who promote their real non screen persona, by the popular press and by the audiences who buy into and use them for their own entertainment. A star is said to build up a persona through the different roles that they play in films and have become brands in their own right. Film companies have been quick to notice this and exploit the brand for a maximum profit. Stars are therefore used as a marketing tool in order to publicise the film. The idea of using stars as a marketing tool to engage audiences for their film began in the early years of the Hollywood film industry. This led to the classification of A-List stars, and to them being capable of opening a film simply because of the presence of their name above the title.' This is due to audiences forming a fan base for a particular star and therefore being interested in this constructed image that is being presented of them. A stars image is built up from several different types of media; personal appearances, film and television performances, fan magazines etc. and is prone to change over time for some actors due to a change or development in their constructed image. An example of this includes actors such as Will Smith whom appeared as a comical character in television shows such as The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air (1990) and evolved into an iconic hero in later films such as I Am Legend (2007). His image has been constructed in a way that sells the idea of his family values and ideologies to a mass audience. A prime example of this is the film The Pursuit of Happyness (2006), where Smith works with his son, Jaden Smith, to present the true story of a salesman who has financial difficulties resulting in the break-up of his marriage. Smiths character, Chris Gardner, applies to a stockbroker internship in the hope that it will lead to a stable income for him and his son, Chris struggles to pay the rent whilst undertaking this internship and results in a period of homelessness, reinforcing the idea of family life with its difficulties, that eventually pay off. Theorists such as Dyer argued that for the star to attract an audience there must be some representativeness, some apparently recognisable element which an audience can relate to.' This relates to the persona of the star, instead of being interpreted as the constructed image that they are, stars are compared with audiences and to particular elements that is liked about them. This could be seen with actors such as marilyn monroe, who came to be the sex symbol, probably for all time,' inspiring a complete change in the way society reacted. Monroe had created such a powerful persona that she was able to create a single particular meaning as a star, becoming known for her roles as the innocently sexy dumb blonde.' This role is particularly shown in films such as Were Not Married (1952) where Monroe plays the role of a beauty pageant contestant, young, beautiful and happy, being featured in revealing costumes such as a bathing suit and short dresses throughout the competition. When her and her husband find out they are not married, they both begin to question their relationship due to her dream of becoming a model, in which she puts before her husband and young baby. Following this, Monroe starred in Gentlemen prefer blondes (1953) and How to Marry a Millionaire (1953), both films contribute to her dumb blonde persona that she has built up over time and adhere to the audience expectations of her. These images are all clearly used to exploit this representation of her which links in with Laura Mulveys male gaze theory in which states that women are merely represented to provide visual pleasure for men'. This reinforces the ideology that males are more dominant than females, and therefore plac ed in a position of lower authority. It is argued that the study of stars cannot be limited to the analysis of specific films of star performances. Star images are the product of intertextuality in which the non-filmic texts of promotion, publicity and criticism interact with the film text.' This refers to her off set persona and the other promotional work she is involved with, such as Monroes work with Playboy in the 1950s and her red velvet photograph that was featured in the first edition of the magazine which became hugely popular as it brought sex out of the closet into the glaring light of day and emphasised that it was not something to hide or be embarrassed about,' From this it can be seen that Monroes provocative nature was apparent in all aspects of her career and personal life and she did not attempt to act converse to this. Later, stars such as Madonna produced the music video for Material Girl which was taken from the clip of Monroes film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, as she performed Diamonds are a Girls Best Friend. This is an example of post modernism where Madonna is said to have used this image in order to become associated with the connotation of Monroes image as a star, the sexy dumb blonde persona. Marilyn has maintained such a dominant position in history that more recent stars of today are aware of her and manipulate her stereotype in order to publicise and create this stereotype for themselves. Another example of an As of his work include; Liar Liar (1997), Me, Myself ; Irene (2000), Bruce Almighty (2003) and Fun With Dick and Jane (2005), all of which were huge financial successes. Liar Liar, for example, took $31,423,025 in its opening weekend alone. Therefore, Careys star image was built up through both his filming within this genre and also by his personal appearances. An example of one of his personal appearances is on David Lettermans Late Show (2005), where Carey is promoting his latest film release, Fun With Dick and Jane. Here, Carey is introduced as the always entertaining, therefore representing his character as a constructed star image, not himself as a person. This is continually reinforced throughout the interview with Careys comical responses and interaction with the audience. It was not until 2007 with the release of The Number 23 that Jim Carey attempted to move from his typical comedy film and change his image by appearing in a suspense, thriller. This film only managed to make $14,602,867 in its opening weekend and received much negative critical attention stating it used a desperate attempt to prove itself with essentially hollow characters', leading to further criticism of Carey himself and how he is unable to leave his persona behind and develop a more serious role. From watching The Number 23 it became apparent why the film received such negative criticism due to the characters cast. Although Carey was used as a successful marketing tool, by the use of his name above the title, in order to attract audience to watch the film, the role was unsatisfying due to the lack of his character persona and humour presented. Intertextual references were taken from films such as Liar Liar, where the character of Carey used phrases such as I rest my case your honour'. Here, Carey shows little emotion and uses the phrase in a simple, monotone sentence. In Liar Liar, contrastingly, Carey is over enthusiastic about winning his case that he results to leaping onto a table. It is almost as if the audience is waiting to see Carey react in this same manner, leading to disappointment. However, the storyline of the film was intriguing for the audience that partly compensates for Careys acting, however, it is clear that Carey is out of place within this genre. It could be considered that Carey is unsuccessful due to his status. After spending over 20 years in the film industry building up the image of a comedian it was an enormous change to then star in a suspense / thriller and try to play a very serious role. It has been stated that the casting of a particular actor has important on the effect the characterization will have. As we can see from films such as Ace Ventura and Fun With Dick and Jane, Careys role has adapted slightly into a more romantic comedy with successful characterisation, therefore showing that it is possible for a role to be adapted, but it could be argued that there is a limit to how far before the casting becomes out of context. From looking at this, it can be seen that it is not always possible for stars to successfully change their image, depending heavily on the change in which they intend to make. As Metz theory suggests, the star is presented as an object for the spectator who view him or her voyeuristically', although this is not intended as a fetish, stars are generally seen as iconic and audiences often aspire to be more like them. By changing their image it can therefore change the way in which the audience perceives that star, often leading to negative publicity and therefore a lowered star status. The traditional Hollywood saying is your only as good as your last picture', therefore if the actors fan base do not enjoy the most recent persona of the star, their success as a film star and entire career could be in jeopardy. This can be seen in Careys career after The Number 23 where he returned to his original role in comedies and took on the lead role in Yes Man (2008), however, due to his performance in this previous cinema production this film only managed $18,262,471 in its opening weekend. Comparing this to what he has achieved in previous films it can be seen that Carey is no longer as successful as he was. Contrasting this, A-List stars such as Julia Roberts have proven successful in adjusting their persona, without it having a negative impact on their overall success. Roberts first became successful in 1990 with the release of Pretty Woman, which in the opening weekend alone grossed $11,280,591. Here, her persona was developed as a young sex symbol, like that of Marilyn Monroe. This links to the typical representation of women within Hollywood where their success appears to lie primarily on their looks. Without this physical attraction it would be much more difficult for a female star to reach the status of an A-List celebrity. Shortly after this, Roberts appeared in several movies that did not suit her persona such as Mary Reilly (1996), in which the horror genre did not suit her personality and become known as a critical and commercial failure'. Roberts then decided to return to her original persona for films such as Runaway Bride (1999), once again reclaiming her success, possibly due to the fan base she had already acclaimed from her previous roles, and being successful enough to have not lost them. Still elements of her as a sex symbol E.g. seduction of the man in order to get paperwork. Over time, Julia Roberts has appeared to be successful in developing her persona to that of a mature young woman with a high level of social conscience towards the world around her. This can be seen in films such as Erin Brockovich (2000), which is based on a true story. Here, Roberts plays the role of Erin, who fights a lawsuit against a company known as PG;E for bringing a threat of an extensive illness into a small town. Here, Roberts demonstrates her maturity through her battling responsibilities of being a single parent and a dedicated worker, this has enabled her persona to develop into a strong independent woman with a sense of fun and a potentially rebellious streak'. This development in persona can be seen as extremely successful due to the opening weekend box office figure of $28,138,465 and the nomination for 5 Oscar awards. It is also relevant to consider the further success Roberts received in later films such as Oceans Twelve (2004), receiving $39,153,380 in the ope ning weekend alone. It must therefore be considered how one star is able to successfully develop their persona, yet another is not. Both stars have reached enormous success as stars, both gaining the reputation of A-List celebrities, yet Julia Roberts has become more successful with this development as can be seen though her box office figures that more than doubled in the new role she acclaimed. Jim Carey however has become less popular, as can be seen through the box office figures that seemed to half. After this, it can be seen that Carey attempted to return to the comedy genre, however, he remained unable to reclaim his previous position in the industry. Other more successful actors such as Brad Pitt have also managed to adapt their persona. Brad Pitt is most commonly known for his role in action and thriller films such as Se7en (1995), Fight Club (1999), Oceans Eleven (2001) and more recently, Mr ; Mrs Smith (2005). Pitts personal life outside of filming is also widely reported due to his level of fame and the public interest in his life. In 2000 Brad attempted to leave behind all of the previous connotations of his constructed image and star as supporting director, Guy Ritchies Snatch. Here, Brad plays the role of an Irish traveller who gets caught up with a London gang and ends up fighting for serious amounts of money. Pitt is used as a supporting act within this film, given no leading role and his name is not used to market the film with the use of a slogan on the case of the film or being exploited in the trailer, it is as if his identity is almost hidden, taking on a role you would not expect to see him in and a whole new identity. Snatch managed to receive $8,005,163 in its opening weekend. Comparing this with the box office figures of Mr ; Mrs Smith, $50,342,878, it could be considered that his role within the film is not significant enough to have made it successful, had his name have been exploited the film may have had a much wider target audience and could have reached a much higher level of success. Howeve r, it must be considered that for a Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½6,000,000 budget, this film did manage to make a profit and would therefore be considered a success. Therefore, it could be argued that stars cannot cross genres due to their persona being built up within the same area of work. This also links into Dyers argument that one of the key characteristics of the successful star is consistency of image in order to deepen the characters that they play; they stay broadly the same in order to enhance recognition.' This can still be proven true with Julia Roberts as elements of her being portrayed as a sex symbol remain present; she has simply matured and become more sophisticated. Her lowered social status is also present due to her working for a male lawyer that continually dominates the case she is building. It has been suggested that the star can change meaning over time,' however, there is little theories stating that a star is able to change their image entirely. From looking at box office figures of the top ranking star it can be seen that with the 2005 figures, Jim Carey ranked 10th and Julia Roberts 14th,  however, by 2009, after the release of The Number 23, Julia Roberts ranked 10th, Jim Carey 14th and Brad Pitt 29th therefore proving that Carey was unable to alter his star persona, yet Roberts overall success increased after her adaption to her persona.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
ACT FAQ Expert Answers to Frequently Asked Questions SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Here at PrepScholar, we get a lot of questions about every aspect of the ACT. To help, we've compiled this ACT FAQ to addressall of your questions about the testÃ¢â¬â whether you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t even cracked open a prep book to study for it yet or if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken it four times and are wondering which scores to send to colleges. Read on to get the answers to all of your burning ACT-related questions and links to the best articles on our site to help you prepare for the ACT. ACT FAQ Table of Contents Preparing for the ACT Evaluating Your ACT Score The ACT Essay Scholarships and College Sending Scores Preparing for the ACT Should I even be taking the ACT? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t colleges really prefer the SAT? Colleges do not have a preference between the SAT and the ACT. They are seen as completely equal options to fulfill the standardized testing requirement. You can choose which test to take based completely on your personal preference. So why does everyone still seem to think that the SAT is seen as more prestigious? Since the SAT has been around for longer, it used to the only standardized test accepted for college applications at many institutions. But since its creation in the late 1950s, the ACT began to be widely accepted as an equally acceptable alternative to the SAT. It was adopted first in Midwestern and Western states, but eventually became common on the East Coast as well. Back in 2007, the last SAT-only holdout, Harvey Mudd, began accepting the ACT. True, if you look at the admissions data from many east-coast schools, the majority of applicants still send the SAT as opposed to the ACT. But that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t because those colleges prefer the SAT. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because students in East Coast states take the SAT more commonly than the ACT, and the majority of applicants to those schools come from the east coast. So when deciding between the ACT and the SAT, the choice comes down to your ability and your personal preferences. Choose the test that's best for you! Further Reading: What Do Ivy League Schools Think of the ACT, Do You Need to Take Both the SAT and the ACT, New SAT vs ACT: Comparison Charts When should I take the ACT for the first time? PrepScholar recommends you take the ACT for the first time junior fall. This way, you can retake the test if needed junior spring, and then be ready to focus exclusively on college applications your senior fall. This timing is also optimal given where you are in your high school career Ã¢â¬â you should have learned all the content tested on the ACT by the beginning of junior year, and you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be so far away from your first algebra class that youÃ¢â¬â¢re hazy on concepts like solving a system of equations. If you try and take the ACT earlier, as a sophomore or freshman, you may struggle with it because you lack certain content knowledge, especially in math. Of course, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading this as a junior or even a senior, donÃ¢â¬â¢t panic. As long as you take the test by senior fall, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to apply to colleges. But earlier is better to avoid a last-minute time crunch or taking the last test before apps are due. Even if you have to use an accelerated study timeline, we strongly recommend working to have the ACT over and done with before senior year starts. It will save you lots of stress, we promise! Further Reading: When Should I Take the ACT for the First Time? I took the ACT at school for free, but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t include the essay (also known as the ACT Plus Writing). Do I have to retake the ACT? There are two cases in which you would want to retake the ACT if you have already taken it as part of state testing, but without the optional Writing/Essay section. Case 1: You are applying to schools that require the ACT Plus Writing. Unfortunately, even if you have an ACT score from state testing, you need to take the entire ACT Plus Writing to be able to apply to certain colleges. The plus side to this is that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already had a (free!) practice run at the ACT, so if you study before your first official ACT Plus Writing, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be very well-prepared for the test and will likely beat your first score. Case 2: You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t score as high as you wanted on the ACT and/or youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to schools with higher ACT score averages than you earned. The ACT is an important part of your college application, so you want to give yourself the best shot possible at your dream schools by earning a high enough score. (You can read more about finding your target ACT score below!) If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not applying to any schools that require ACT Plus Writing and your score is high enough for all of the schools you want to apply to, you do not have to retake the ACT. Lucky you! Further Reading: Should You Take the ACT With or Without Writing?, Which States Require the ACT? Full List and Advice, Which Colleges Require ACT Writing? 633 schools How long should I study for the ACT? There is no "one size fits all" answer to how long you should study for the ACT. How much time you spend on ACT prep varies based on the score you want and how much time you have to study. To get started, these are PrepScholar's estimates for how long you should study for the ACT, based on how many points you need to improve by. Of course, these are just estimates, and will vary based on your personal strengths and weaknesses. Don't stop studying until you're sure you can achieve your target score on the real test! 0-1 ACT Composite Point Improvement: 10 hours1-2 ACT Point Improvement: 20 hours2-4 ACT Point Improvement: 40 hours4-6 ACT Point Improvement: 80 hours6-9 ACT Point Improvement: 150 hours+ You can calculate your weekly ACT prep time by following these three steps: Find your starting score (which you can learn by taking a practice test) Find your score goal (see "How do I come up with a target ACT score" below) Decide much time you can spend on ACT studying each week LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take an example. Say Student AÃ¢â¬â¢s ACT score goal is a 28, but they scored a 24 on an ACT practice test. That means Student A has to improve by 4 points. Based on our estimates of point increases to study hours, Student A needs to put in around 40 hours of study time. Here are three potential study plans for Student A: Light: 4 hours a week for 10 weeks Moderate: 8 hours a week for 5 weeks Heavy: 20 hours a week for 2 weeks Each of these plans comes out to the required 40 hours. Student A can choose the right plan for them based on their schedule. If Student A has a lot of extracurricular commitments but does have plenty of time before they take their first ACT, Study Plan 1 may be best, since they can squeeze in a couple of 2-hour study sessions each week in between homework and club meetings. If Student A is taking the ACT in 3 weeks and needs to improve, fast, than they might take on the more cram-like schedule of Study Plan 3. Obviously, this plan would involve toning down other commitments, and perhaps would be most feasible over a school break or summer vacation. So your next steps are as follows: Find your target score Find your starting score (take a practice exam) Using our hours-to-points estimate, figure out how long you need to study, and then create your own schedule Further Reading: Exactly How Long Should I Study for the ACT, How to Beat Procrastination in Your ACT Prep How do I come up with a target ACT score? Your target ACT score is a score above the 75th percentile for admitted students at all of the schools you hope to apply to. Above the 75th percentile? What we mean is, you want a score above a school's "middle 50 percent range," which is the range of admitted student ACT scores between the 25th and 75th percentile. In other words, you want a score that is higher than 75% of last year's admitted applicants. Why? Because having such a high score gives you an excellent chance of admission. As an example, here are some examples of ACT middle 50 ranges at a few Massachusetts colleges: Harvard College: 32-35 Tufts University: 30-33 University of Massachusetts Amherst: 24-29 You need to look up the score ranges for all colleges you are seriously interested in applying to, and then set your target score based on the most competitive school youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to. For example, a student whose most competitive school is Harvard should set their ACT target score at 36. A student whose most competitive school is University of Massachuetts Amherst should set their target score at 30. This way, even if you miss your score goal by a point or two, you will likely have a really strong ACT score for the other schools on your list! Further Reading: What's a Good ACT Score for Your College, What's a Good ACT Score? A Bad Score? An Excellent Score?, Average ACT Scores: What They Mean for You, ACT Score Percentiles How should I study for the ACT? If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t already, start your ACT studying by taking a complete practice exam, timing yourself strictly. This will give you the best information about your strengths and weaknesses on the test and be the baseline for your study plan. For example, even if you're great at math, you might realize that ACT Math is really hard for you because you ran out of time while taking your first practice test. This is crucial information to know as you begin studying! Once you've taken that first practice test, grade, score, and evaluate it carefully. Calculate your starting composite score. Then, note your strengths and your weaknesses. (We recommend using a notebook to start logging and tracking your weaknesses.) Look for patterns in wrong answers. This could be in terms of content or test strategy. For example, when you evaluate the Math section, you might notice that missed most of the trigonometry questions. That's a big clue that you need to review some key trigonometry concepts and spent plenty of time practicing math questions. Or, you might notice that you tend to get most questions right at the beginning of a test section, but rush towards the end and get a lot of wrong answers. That's a clue that you need to work on timing. Next, research your target ACT score, using the method in the above question ("How do I come up with a target ACT score?"). Find the difference between your starting score and your target score.Based on the difference between your starting score and target score, estimate the amount of hours you'll need to study and how long you'll study each week. (See "How long should I study for the ACT?" above for more on this process.) Here are two quick examples: Starting Score: 24 Target Score: 28 Points to Improve: 4 Approximate Hours Needed: 40 Study Plan: 8 hours per week for 5 weeks Starting Score: 29 Target Score: 35 Points to Improve: 6 Approximate Hours Needed: 80 Study Plan: 10 hours a week for 8 weeks Now you're finally ready to hit the books! Focus your studying around your weak areas Ã¢â¬â whether thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a particular subject area or a problem you keep hitting (like running out of time on the ACT Math or Reading sections). Some students might spend the majority of their study time on one subject area that they struggle with. Others might need to study for all four sections equally. Check out the links before for resources to get started. Further Reading: Free ACT Practice Tests, How to Get the Most Out of ACT Practice Tests, How to Get the Most Realistic ACT Practice Test Experience The Ultimate Study Guides to ACT English, ACT Math, ACT Reading, and ACT Science The Best ACT Prep Books, The Best ACT Prep Websites, 15 Tips and Tricks to Improve Your ACT Score, 26 Great Alternatives to ACT Practice Tests What should I know about the ACT before I take it? Studying for the content on the ACT is important, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s also helpful to be familiar with the logistics of the ACT before test day: how long the test is, what the exact rules are, and what to do to be prepared on test day. Check out the links below to get a full briefing on ACT logistics so that when you sit down at your desk on test day, you're ready to focus 100% on the test itself. Further Reading: How Long is the ACT, ACT Instructions: Complete Guide, Rules and Regulations on the ACT, What to Do the Night Before the ACT, Where Should You Take the ACT Evaluating YourACT Score Is my ACT score bad/good/amazing? In terms of the national ACT percentile rankings, these are the important score benchmarks: 20: 50th percentile (average!) 24: 75th percentile 28: 90th percentile 33+: 99th percentile So in terms of the national rankings, anything above a 20 is above average, any score above 24 is really good, and anything above a 28 is amazing! But don't let that score go to your head just yet. The real measure of your ACT score's quality is how it stacks up to the score averages at colleges you want to apply to. (See "How do I come up with my target ACT score?" for more on finding a college's ACT score ranges.) One thing that's interesting about this is that an ACT score that's amazing for one student could actually be low for another. Let's take an example. Student A got a 30 on the ACT. This is an amazing score for them since they are applying to a few colleges and universities in state. Not only is this score more than enough to get them admitted, it even is high enough to qualify for many scholarships! Student B also got a 30. This is a low score for them since they are set on getting into either Stanford or MIT, and need at least a 33, but ideally higher, to be a competitive applicant. The bottom line? You'll have to research the ACT score ranges at your dream schools to decide once and for all if your ACT score is bad, great, or amazing. Further Reading: What's a Good ACT Score for Your College, ACT Percentiles, Average ACT Scores: What They Mean for You, What's a Bad ACT Score, Scholarships for ACT Scores, ACT Scores for the Ivy League My ACT score is low. Am I doomed? Many students get really stressed after they get their ACT scores back, especially if they did worse than they wanted to. But, first of all, remember that your ACT score is not a measure of your intelligence! Just because you got a score that's low (either in terms of national rankings or the college you want to go to) does not mean that you, as a student and a person, do not have promise. The ACT, at the end of the day, is just a multiple-choice test. So if you didn't do as well as you wanted, you can study more and retake it. (This is why we recommend taking the test for the first time junior fall, so you have plenty of time for retakes!) If you didn't do as well as you wanted the first time, you likely had some test-taking strategy issues or maybe there was content you simply didn't understand. Either way, those are both things that can be fixed with hard work, study, and practice. (Check out our links to study and practice resources below to get started!) And if you're ashamed or embarrassed about your first score, don't stress. If you score higher on a retake, you can actually delete your first ACT score! It never has to see the light of day. Finally, if you get a low ACT score and you don't have time to retake it before a college's deadline, you can still apply to other schools that aren't as hard to get into. Even if you don't get into your dream school, as long as you get into college and get great grades an an undergraduate, you will be able to meet your graduate school and career goals. Don't let this one little test slow you down! Further Reading: Easiest Colleges to Get Into, Schools with Guaranteed Admission, What is a Safety School? How To Find Yours,Did You Know You Can Delete ACT Scores Free ACT Practice Tests, How to Get the Most Out of ACT Practice Tests, How to Get the Most Realistic ACT Practice Test Experience The Ultimate Study Guides to ACT English, ACT Math, ACT Reading, and ACT Science The Best ACT Prep Books, The Best ACT Prep Websites, 15 Tips and Tricks to Improve Your ACT Score, 26 Great Alternatives to ACT Practice Tests I got [x] score on my first ACT. Should I retake the test? This answer to this question depends completely on what your goals for colleges and scholarships are! So the first thing to figure out if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t already is this: what is your ACT target score? (See "How do I come up with a target score?" above.) Obviously, if you scored lower than your target score, you should probably consider retaking the exam. However, you also need to consider how many points you need to improve by to hit your target, and whether you have the time to devote to making that happen. Improving 2 or 3 composite points is very doable, but trying to improve by 10 points is a very difficult task. (We will explore just how possible it is to make big point increases in the next question!) If you scored lower than your target score and you have sufficient time to restudy, then you should retake the ACT. But if you do not have sufficient time to study, do not just wing an ACT retake and hope for the best! If you retake the ACT without addressing your test-taking weaknesses or content struggles, it's likely you will either get the same composite score, or even a slightly lower score. Further Reading: What's a Good ACT Score for Your College, Should You Retake the ACT, Already Have a High ACT Score? How to Improve Even More, How to Get a Perfect 36 on the ACT, by a Perfect Scorer, ACT Score Decrease? How Much it Can Drop and Why Is it possible to go from [x] ACT score to [y] ACT score in [z] amount of time? First, in terms of ACT composite score increases, these are the basic possibilities, which of course will vary based on personal factors: 1-2 points: Very doable. Your main obstacle is likely test-taking strategy and a few small content issues. 3-5 points: Doable, but you will have to devote more study hours to accomplish this increase. 6-8 points: Possible, but it will take some very serious studying and commitment. You likely will have to address some content deficits in addition to practicing. 8+: This will really depend on your situation and time available for studying. You will likely have to address some serious content deficits before you focus on improving your test-taking strategy. Those possibilities aside, whether you can actually achieve your desired increase depends simply on this: how many hours can you devote to studying? Even if you're just aiming for a small 2-point increase, you have to devote time to studying to actually meet your goal. There are no shortcuts! With that in mind, this is an estimate of the amount of hours you will need to accomplish ACT composite point increases: 0-1 ACT Composite Point Improvement: 10 hours1-2 ACT Point Improvement: 20 hours2-4 ACT Point Improvement: 40 hours4-6 ACT Point Improvement: 80 hours6-9 ACT Point Improvement: 150 hours+ Again, these are just estimates, and the time you need will vary based on your own personal strengths and weaknesses. To get an idea of what these points-to-hours estimates look like in action, and how feasible it is to make certain point increases, let's look at two students who each have 2 months before their next ACT. Student A First ACT Score: 26 ACT Score Goal: 28 Points to Increase: 2 Based on our estimates, Student A has to devote about 20 hours to ACT prep to meet their goal of going from a 26 to a 28. Since they have two months to study, they can easily fit this study time into their schedule. Two months is about 8 weeks. If Student A devotes 3 hours each week to ACT prep, they will log 24 study hours, more than their total goal, by the time they sit down for their ACT retake. Student A can fit those 3 hours into their schedule however they need to: with a single 3-hour study session one day a week, or 1 hour for three days a week, or with 30 minutes six days a week. All of those study plans could fit into even a very busy student's schedule. So you can see why a 2-point ACT composite increase is very doable! Student B First ACT Score: 26 ACT Score Goal: 34 Points to Increase: 8 Student B has their work cut out for them! To go from a 26 to a 34 will require some serious study time: at least 150 hours, so let's go with 160 as our estimate. To fit 160 study hours into 8 weeks, Student B has to study, on average, for 20 hours each week: basically, the ACT will become Student B's part-time job! They could study 4 hours on each school night to fit in 20 hours, or maybe 6 hours on each weekend day, plus 2 hours a night Monday through Thursday. Either way, ACT prep will become a big part of their life, and Student B will likely have to cut back on extracurricular commitments. So while going from a 26 to a 34 in 8 weeks is certainly possible, you can see why it would take a huge time commitment and likely be quite stressful. If possible, Student B should aim for a later ACT retake date. For example, if they wait 4 months to retake the ACT, they could reduce their needed study time to much-more-manageable 10 hours per week. Further reading: How Long Should I Study for the ACT, 25 to 32: 10-Day Fast ACT Study Plan, How to Cram for the ACT The ACT Essay Can you tell me about the new ACT essay? The old ACT Writing sectionwas fairly straightforward Ã¢â¬â it gave you a prompt that you basically had to take a Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ opinion on. You could use evidence from your own life, from any books you had read, or recent articles. It was shorter, as well: just 30 minutes. Those were the days! The new essay, which was first offered in September 2015, is a bit more complicated. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s 40 minutes long, and instead of just having you offer your opinion on a topic, you have to read through two to three opinions other people have already written on the topic. Then, your essay has to evaluate those different opinions and weave them into your own opinion about the topic. You can check out our guide with example prompts and analysis. When you take the writing test, you'll receive a writing test scoreon a scale of 1-36, and four writing domain scores (Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions), each scored on a scale of 2-12. (Those domain scores do not add up to your final writing score. Confusing, we know!)Your writing test score will not affect your overall ACT composite score. A picture of your essay will be available to the colleges you send ACT Plus Writing scores to. So it's important to give it your strongest effort, even though the essay score willnot affect your ACT Composite score. Check out the links below for more in-depth guides to the new ACT Writing test, including tips for how to approach the essay. Further Reading: Complete Guide to the New ACT Writing Test, ACT Essay Scoring: Completely Explained I got [a lowish score] on the new ACT essay even though my composite is [high]. Does this look bad to schools? When colleges evaluate the ACT, by far the most important factor is your overall composite score. Your subject area scores (English, Math, Reading, and Science) are also looked at for more context. Your essay score will be noticed, but colleges understand itÃ¢â¬â¢s a first draft written under timed conditions Ã¢â¬â they donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect it to be your best writing! They also realize the essay changed in 2015 and will expect some score fluctuations as students get used to the new essay. Part of the reason some colleges require the ACT Plus Writing is because it means they will have a sample of your actual writing Ã¢â¬â so if your personal statement sounds like it was produced by a completely different writer (say, a paid professional), theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll know. But your ACT Essay is not meant to be the most important evaluator of your writing skills. Read more: All Colleges That Require the ACT Plus Writing So unless your score is terrible compared to your composite (say you have a 33 composite but only got 12/36 on your essay), itÃ¢â¬â¢s not worth retaking the ACT just to improve your essay. Especially if you have a high composite and then it drops on your essay-improving retake, that could actually hurt your chances at some selective schools. That said, if your essay score is way lower than you think it should be, be sure to read up on the recent controversy over ACT essay scoring! Scholarships and College What scholarships can I get withmy ACT score? Many students wonder if their ACT score is high enough to get them a scholarship. Before we explain how likely your score is to earn you some serious scholarship cash, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to understand the two broad types of scholarships available. Merit-Based Scholarships: these are awards based on student achievement. Need-Based Scholarships/Financial Aid: these are awards based on student need. As a rough rule of thumb, the more selective the college, the less likely it is to have merit-based scholarships. Why? Well, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a school like Stanford. StanfordÃ¢â¬â¢s admit rate last year was just about 5% so only one in twenty applicants got in. Since that means everyone who gets into Stanford is pretty exceptional, it would be hard for Stanford to pick and choose among their admits to decide who gets merit-based funding. So instead, Stanford, along with many of the Ivy Leagues and other top schools, only has need-based scholarships available, to make sure money goes to students with greater financial need. That said, plenty of selective colleges also have merit-based scholarships. I will be focusing on merit-based scholarships in this answer, since your ACT score could help you get one. But check out the links below to learn more about need-based financial aid and how to apply for it. Many colleges and universities have merit scholarships, but how they choose the winners varies widely Ã¢â¬â some scholarships are a simple combination of GPA and ACT score, while others, especially many full-rides, are a mini-application in themselves (you may have to submit your transcript, ACT score, essay or essays, a list of your extracurriculars, and letters of recommendation for some of the most prestigious scholarships!). In addition to scholarships offered by colleges, there are private scholarships (funded by companies, individuals, and foundations) that, again, have their own selection criteria (but generally, the higher the scholarship, the longer the application). You can search for these scholarships on websites like FastWeb and College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s Big Future. The bottom line: you have to do research. Keep in mind the higher your ACT score, the more likely it is it will earn (or help you earn) a scholarship. Based on ACT percentiles and information from college websites, these are our rough guidelines for how likely an ACT composite is to net you a scholarship (assuming you also have a strong GPA). 33-36: Very high likelihood 30-32: High likelihood 27-30: Decent likelihood 24-26 Possible Any ACT score lower than a 24 is not likely to be as competitive for scholarships on its own. Merit scholarships are given for exceptional performance, which is why a 24 and up (the 75th percentile and up) could earn a scholarship. A lower score is less likely to help you earn a merit scholarship since you don't stand out as much among other high school students. Further Reading: Guaranteed Scholarships for ACT Scores, How to Do College Research Right, 79 Colleges with Full-Ride Scholarships, What Is Financial Aid?, How to Apply for Financial Aid, 27 Colleges With the Best Financial Aid, Every College That Offers 100% Financial Aid My ACT score is [x]. Where should I apply to college? Ã¢â¬Å"Where should I apply to college?Ã¢â¬ is an incredibly broad question, but one that we get a lot here at PrepScholar! Since there are literally hundreds of colleges and universities in the US alone, if we drew up a list of all of the colleges and universities that your ACT score could feasibly make you competitive for, it would be way too long a list to be useful! Instead, work backwards a bit. Start researching colleges based on factors that are important to you: location, size, cost, what you want to study, special programs, athletic programs, fine arts, etc. Once you have a list of between 15 to 20 colleges, then you can learn more about their admissions data and whether your ACT score would make you competitive there or not. As you refine your list, aim to include some schools that are reaches for you (your ACT score is at or below their score averages), targets (your ACT score is at or just above their averages) and safeties (your ACT score is way above). If you apply to only reach schools, you risk being rejected everywhere (itÃ¢â¬â¢s not like the lottery Ã¢â¬â the more tickets you buy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t increase your chance of Ã¢â¬Å"winning!Ã¢â¬ ). But if you apply to only safety schools, you could miss out on a really great college opportunity. Check out the articles below to learn more about college research and drawing up an application list. Further Reading: How to Do College Research Right, What is a Safety School?, What is a Target School?, What is a Reach School?, How to Get Merit Scholarships and Honors at State Schools, Colleges with Guaranteed Admission for ACT Scores My ACT score is [x], my GPA is [y]. Will I get into [z] college? PrepScholar has put together pages for hundreds of colleges and universities that allow you to plug in your GPA and SAT/ACT score and get an estimate of your admissions chances based on the most current admissions data. These pages are where to go if you just want to know your odds of admission given your ACT score and current GPA. Here are the pages for some of the most asked-about colleges and universities: Top Schools: Stanford, MIT, UChicago, Duke, Vanderbilt, Northwestern, Caltech, Johns Hopkins The Ivy League: Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, Brown, Dartmouth, Penn, Cornell To look up this page for any college or university, just search "[Name of College/University] ACT GPA Prepscholar" in any search engine. But moving beyond the numbers, you need to put together the strongest application possible for your chances to pan out, especially if your odds of admission are low and/or you're applying to a highly selective school. Learn more about writing the personal statement, getting stellar letters of recommendation, and which extracurriculars you should do. We also highly recommend reading our guide to getting into Harvard by PrepScholar founder Allen Cheng. Even if you're not aiming for Harvard, this post breaks down a lot of the common misconceptions about college admissions and can help you leverage your personal strengths to become the best possible applicant. Finally, it's important to make sure to apply to a mix of schools, including reaches, targets, and safeties. Read more about what a reach school is, what a target school is, and what a safety school is. When you're putting together your application list, try to include reaches, targets, and safeties to maximize your choices come senior spring. Sending Scores I have multiple ACT scores. Which ones should I send to schools? If you're applying to any schools that require all of your ACT scores, send all of your ACT scores. End of story! Read more: Colleges that Require All ACT Scores If you're applying to schools that do not require all ACT scores, you only have to send your highest composite score Ã¢â¬â after all, you need just one ACT score to apply to college. However, if the school Ã¢â¬Å"superscoresÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â combines different subject areas from different tests for a final higher composite score Ã¢â¬â consider sending the scores that would create the highest superscore. If a school does not superscore but does consider all scores they receive, itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you if you want to send multiple sets of scores. In general, itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth sending along a test with a much higher score on a certain section, but also keep in mind the ACT charges per test date to send scores, so it is expensive to send multiple scores to multiple schools. The most important single number on your score report is your composite score, so keep that in mind as you make your decision. Further Reading: ACT Superscore Calculator, Do Colleges Average Your ACT Score?, Read This Before Sending ACT Scores to Colleges, Should You Send the Four Free ACT Score Reports?, Colleges that Superscore the ACT: Complete List I took the SAT and the ACT. I also took SAT Subject tests. Do I have to send all of these scores to colleges? First, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the SAT and ACT (and ignore the SAT Subject Tests for now). For the vast majority of colleges, you have to send either the SAT or the ACT. You do not have to send both. Note that there are two exceptions to the SAT or ACT rule: 1. Schools like Stanford that require your entire testing history across both tests. These are rare cases Ã¢â¬â even schools that require all scores from one exam usually do not require you to send all ACT and all SAT scores, you just pick one exam and send all of the scores you have for that exam. Read more: Colleges that Require All SAT Scores, Colleges that Require All ACT Scores 2. Schools with test-flexible policies that will allow you to send AP Test Scores, IB Test Scores, SAT Subject Tests, and others in lieu of the SAT or ACT. Read more: Schools with Test-Flexible Policies But for the vast majority of American colleges, you will have to send either the SAT or the ACT. So between your SAT and the ACT scores, choose the test with the highest score (or scores!) to send. Read more: How to Convert and Compare SAT and ACT Scores You may want to consider sending both scores only if, according to the SAT/ACT conversion tables, they are in very similar ranges. For example, perhaps your composite scores on each test are about equal, but you have a higher Math score on the ACT and a higher Reading score on the SAT. In that case, it could be worth sending both scores for colleges to see your different strengths. Note that it is more expensive to send scores from both tests, and again, you are only required to send one set of scores to apply. Next, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about SAT Subject Tests. These are a separate category of tests, and treated differently by many schools. Some schools require (or Ã¢â¬Å"strongly encourageÃ¢â¬ ) two SAT Subject tests to apply (especially many of the Ivy Leagues). Some schools only require them if you choose to take the SAT rather than the ACT. But at most schools, they are optional. Read More: Colleges that Require SAT Subject Tests: Complete List So unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to a school that absolutely requires SAT Subject Tests to apply (in which case, send them, end of discussion!), itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you whether to send those scores. You have to ask yourself if your subject scores make your application look better or worse. Often, Subject Tests can show strong ability in specific subjects, like Chemistry or United States History, which is good. But do not go out of your way to send a mediocre SAT Subject Test score! Further Reading: Complete Comparison Charts: ACT versus SAT, Are You Better at the SAT or ACT? Find Out For Sure, What is a Good SAT Subject Test Score, SAT Subject Test Scores for the Ivy League IÃ¢â¬â¢m a senior and have one ACT score but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not great. IÃ¢â¬â¢m taking the ACT again in December but I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t know the score until after IÃ¢â¬â¢ve submitted my applications. Should I submit my not-so-great score or wait for my December score before I decide? To send your December ACT score so itÃ¢â¬â¢s received on time to be considered for most schools, your score needs to be sent to your schools as soon as itÃ¢â¬â¢s available. That means when you register to take the December ACT, you have to put down those schools on your registration, well before youÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken the exam and seen your score. This also means that you are sending your December ACT score blind: you will not have the chance to see your score before you send it. (In the vast majority of cases, you will not have enough time to take the December test, view your score three weeks later, and then send your score to colleges Ã¢â¬â the score will arrive too far after the deadline to be considered.) Because of this, I highly recommend sending the ACT score you do have, and then also sending along your December ACT as soon as itÃ¢â¬â¢s available. Since you need an ACT score in your file for it to be considered at all, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not worth risking the December score arriving too late to be considered and your whole file being thrown out. Plus, there is no way to know your December ACT score will be higher than your current one. If your December ACT ended up being lower, not only will your application look worse, you were risking not completing it on time for nothing. If your December ACT score ends up being higher, it will help out your application, since colleges will receive and note the higher score. But in the meantime, itÃ¢â¬â¢s safest to make sure there is a score in your file by the time the application is due. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading this as a younger student, this is why we highly recommend taking the ACT the first time in your junior fall, so you have plenty of time to retake the exam if needed and so you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t run into stressful application deadlines. Further Reading: The Last ACT Dates for Early Decision Deadlines, The Last ACT Dates for Regular Decision Deadlines, Did You Know You Can Delete ACT Scores? Have a Question That Isn't Answered Here? Post it in the comments or check out ExpertHub, where experienced tutors and counselors answer student questions. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by ACT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Business report - Research Paper Example What are the responsibilities of the corporate companies with reference to glass ceiling? Based on the literature review and discussions, the paper outlines the recommendations to create a level playing field for the women employees to succeed in their carrier and attain top positions of leadership. The recommendations outlined covers introduction of reforms in the performance scales to avoid discrimination on the basis of gender, introduction of quota system by the government by allocating proportional representation for women in recruitment and promotions to higher positions and introduction of legal reforms by the government for property rights to women in succession. These basic reforms at the company and government level will increase the presence of women in top positions in various organizations, institutions and the government departments. The other barriers enumerated will be shattered down over the period of time, once the fundamental reform process covering these issues ar e carried out. Introduction Purpose of the report The issue of glass ceiling in the context of the developments in technology, telecommunication and media assumes greater significance on account equality of opportunities to the women in the society. Several companies have declared this issue as an objective in their CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) programs. The purpose of the report is to analyze and present the various issues involved in practice and the ways to rectify the position for a better working atmosphere by ensuring equality in opportunity for all in the society for a sustainable development. Scope The scope of the paper is to cover the concept of glass ceiling, the factors leading to this phenomenon in the companies, institutions and government and the responsibilities on the part of the corporate companies or other institutions in fixing up the issue. And as such, the issues extraneous to this objective are covered only to the extent they are relevant to the topic of the discussion. Sources and Methods This report relies mainly on secondary sources for analysis and discussion. The data with reference to glass ceiling are analyzed in the background of the information gathered from the secondary sources which forms the basis for the recommendations. Limitations The psychological factors involved in the study may vary from person to person within the society among males and females. Therefore, perception with regard to the issues could be mostly subjective in nature conditioned by their cultural background, level of education and the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience. Therefore, the study can only give broad outlines in its findings and giving specific solution or recommendation to the issue would be difficult. Glass ceiling The discrimination by sex was outlawed in the Civil Rights Act, 1964. The barriers to the advancement of women in employment especially for the leadership positions still exists in various forms though there has been considera ble progress achieved in the lower and middle levels in business organizations and the government departments as per the statistics. Stock, K (2011) states that